Man Ray

Man Ray

  • Introduction

  • CV

  • Exhibitions

  • Publications

  • Links

  • More contexts

In the middle of the 1920s, the role of photography was much debated in the United States. It was questioned whether photography can be something more than just a technical aid in producing a more precise replication of reality. Photography hitherto enjoyed a primarily scientific, but not at all artistic, reception. At precisely this point, Man Ray, who moved to Paris in 1921, began to use photography in a radically surrealist way. For Man Ray, the medium of photography had always been more than a mere technical reproduction material, even though he had first been introduced to it as such. In it, he discovered a multilayered, artistic means of expression. It is important to add that he was originally a painter, drawer, and object artist, which he remained for the rest of his life, even though photography came to take a prominent place in his work. The European avant-garde and their ultra-modern presentation techniques already fascinated him, together with Marcel Duchamp, even before leaving New York. Skilled in all things technical and happy to try new things, he worked with an airbrush gun and irritated the New York art world with pictures that could no longer be categorized. None other than André Breton labeled him as pre-surrealist, shortly after his arrival in France. One could not have received a higher compliment from the grandfather of surrealism. Originally very Dadaist, Man Ray broke with the one-dimensional roles attributed to him and preferred to invent his own. Among his new, artistic forms of expression belonged Rayography, a special photogram technique, along with the photographic process of solarisation that he developed in the 1930s and long kept secret. Man Ray was and remained in a category of his own. His preference was for cross-genre projects. In the medium of photography, as well as film, he saw as a new opportunity for artistic expression. The impulse from his multilayered, fascinating work, continues to inspire many photographers and artists until today. It is especially telling that such fashion magazines as “Harper’s Bazaar” or “Vu,” in his day, took closer notice to Man Ray than the critics of the traditionally defined art scene, with the rigid categories of that time. In Paris he was regularly booked as an experimental fashion photographer. But he also learned to make serious portraits of artists and authors such as Gertrude Stein, James Joyce, or Ernest Hemingway. A special place in his oeuvre of photographic artwork that became immortal was held not just by himself, but also by two women who often modeled for him: Kiki and Lee Miller. Man Ray transformed the dark-haired, erotically sensual Kiki into a female violin, in a play on a motif by Ingres. The blonde, classically strict Lee Miller, in comparison, was often captured as a classic beauty in the form of a solarisation statue. One should never forget: these images, which today have long been held as classics of modernism, once made some art critics red with anger and were far ahead of their time. Not everyone yet understood what the expressive potential of photography could be. Man Ray’s sense for innovative composition design and surrealist analogies between objects found particular artistic expression in his works, in which he would take the motif of a head and skillfully isolate it in the picture, combined with masks or other art objects. He thereby drove the contrast of what is artistic and what is natural to a peak. The teardrop image of Kiki is also world famous. It functions as a photogenic, surrealist reflex from the depths of human sub-consciousness, implemented with the simplest of technical material, but with superbly irritating and intentional artificiality. Kiki’s eyes, which can be seen in detail on large prints, melt with the glass tears and artificial eyelashes to a third element that stands on its own. One has to admit: Man Ray’s work belongs to the great and grandiose moments capturing aesthetic modernism.

Stephan Reisner

27. 08. 1890 Born as Emmanuel Rudnitsky in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
1897 Moving to Williamsburg, Brooklyn, USA
1908 Art studies at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League, New York, USA
1912 Beginning of Art studies at the Modern School of New Yorks Ferrer Center, New York, USA
1913 Married the belgian poet Adon Lacroix
1915 First encounter with Marcel Duchamp at the New Yorker Daniel Gallery, New York
1919 Divorce
1920 Founding of the Société Anonyme Inc., with the help of Marcel Duchamp and Katherine Dreier, Association for the promotion of modern art in America
1921 Publication of the New York Dada, with Marcel Duchamp
1921 Moving to Paris, Hôtel des Ecoles, Montparnasse, France
1922 First portrait works, including Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Henri Matisse etc.
1922 First own studio, Paris, France
1922 First encounters with Kiki de Montparnasse, model, muse and partner
1930 Beginning of the Cooperation with Vogue und Harper’s Bazaar
1932 Return to New York
1934 First encounter with Meret Oppenheim
1940 - 1951 American exile
1946 Wedding Juliet Browne
1951 Return to his studio in Paris after exile, France
1976 Died at the age of 86 in Paris, France

Awards (Selection)

Gold Medal for Photography, Biennale, Venice, Italy

Collections (Selection)

Guggenheim Museum, New York City, USA
Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
Museum Ludwig, Köln, Deutschland
Musée d'Orsay Collection, Paris, USA
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands
International Center of Photography, New York City, USA
Tate Gallery, London, USA
Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Fonds Regional d'Art Contemporain (FRAC) Bourgogne, Dijon, France
Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy

Exhibits (Selection)

1974 Man Ray Inventor – Painter – Poet, Cultural Center, New York, USA
1973 Combattimento per un´Immagine, Galleria Civica d´Arte Moderna, Turin, Italy
1971 Autour du Bain Turc d´Ingres, Louvre, Paris, France
1964 Le Surréalisme, Galerie Charpentier, Paris, France
Dada, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands
1958 Dada, Dokumente einer Bewegung, Kunstverein, Dusseldorf, Germany
1951 Abtract Paintings and Sculpture in America, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
1948 Paintings and Sculptures by the Directors of the Société 1920 – 1948, Yale Art Gallery, New Haven, USA
1944 The Imagery of Chess, Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA
1938 International surrealism exhibition, Galerie des Beaux - Arts, Paris, France
1936 Objets surréalistes, Galerie Charles Ratton, Paris, France
1935 Galerie Adlan, Barcelona, Spain
Galerie des Cahiers d`Arts, Paris, France
1934 Lund, Humphries & Co, London, England
1933 Exposition des Surréalistes, Galerie Pierre Colle, Paris, France
1933 An Exhibition of Foreign Photography, Art Center, New York, USA
1932 Surrealist Exhibition, Julien Levy Gallery, New York, USA
1931 Photographies de Man Ray, Cannes, France
1929 Compositions photographiques, Art Center, Chicago, USA
1925 Galerie Goltz, Munich, Germany
1925 Surrealist painter, Galerie Pierre, Paris, France
1922 Salon des Indépendants, Paris, France
1920 Exhibition of Paintings by American Modernists, Country Museum of History, Sciences and Art, Los Angeles, USA
1919 Gallery Daniel, New York, USA
1916 The Black Widow, Forum Exhibition of Modern Painters, Galerie Anderson, New York, USA
1915 New Yorker Daniel Gallery, New York, USA


Retrospectives

2010 Unconcerned but not indifferent, National Art Center, Tokio, Japan
2010 Alias Man Ray: The Art of Reinvention, The Jewish Museum, New York, USA
2008 Unconcerned but not indifferent, Pinakothek, Paris, France
2008 Unbekümmert, aber nicht gleichgültig, Martin Groupius Bau, Berlin, Germany
2008 Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Francis Picabia, Tate Modern, London, USA
2006 Dada, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA
2006 Man's Men: Portraits by Man Ray, Zabriskie Gallery, New York, USA
2006 Man Ray in the Age of Electricity, Huntington, New York, USA
2003 Man Ray’s Portraits, 1921 – 1939, Carosso Fine Art, New York, USA
2002 Surrealism: Desire Unbound, he Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA

Books/Catalogs (Selection)

Books by Man Ray (Selection)

Man Ray, Self Portrait, Schirmer/Mosel, Munich, Germany, 1963
Man Ray, La photographie n´est pas d´art, with apreface by André Breton, Paris, France, 1937
Man Ray, Paul Eluard, André Breton, Rose Sélavy, Tristan Tzara. Photographs by Man Ray 1920 Paris 1934, James Thrall Soby, France, 1934
Electricité with an preface by Pierre Bost, Paris, France, 1931
Champs Délicieux, 12 rayographies, introduction by Tristan Tzara, Paris, France, 1922


Books about Man Ray (Selection)

Neil Baldwin, Man Ray, Plon, Paris, France, 1990
Janus, Man Ray: The Potographic Image, Gordon Fraser, London, England, 1980
Arturo Schwarz, Man Ray, Il rigore dell´imaginazione, Feltrinelli, Milan,Italy, 1977
Roland Penrose, Man Ray, Thames and Hudson, London, England, 1975
Pierre Bourgeade, Bonsoir, Man Ray, Belfond, Paris, France, 1972
L. Fritz Gruber, Man Ray, Portraits, Edition Prisma, Paris, France, 1963
Georges Ribemont – Dessaignes, Man Ray, Gallimard, collection Peintres nouveaux, Paris, France, 1930

Additional Information

Movies of Man Ray

1959/60 Paris la belle, Pierre Prévert
1935 Essai de simulation de délire cinématographique
1929 Le Mystères du château de Dé, Les
1928 Étoile de mer
1926 Emak Bakia
1924 Ballet mécanique, Fernand Léger
1923 Retour à la raison,
1921 Anémic cinéma

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